examples:residential_buildings:single_-_family_houses:central_europe:the_world_s_first_passive_house_darmstadt-kranichstein_germany

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examples:residential_buildings:single_-_family_houses:central_europe:the_world_s_first_passive_house_darmstadt-kranichstein_germany [2015/09/16 00:20]
wfeist [From the low-energy house to the Passive House] central Europe
examples:residential_buildings:single_-_family_houses:central_europe:the_world_s_first_passive_house_darmstadt-kranichstein_germany [2016/08/22 10:41]
kdreimane removed
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 |{{ :​picopen:​fenster_ph_groesse.png?​500 }}| |{{ :​picopen:​fenster_ph_groesse.png?​500 }}|
-|//**__Fig. 1 - Simulation results at the beginning:​__ here is a calculation of the dependen-\\ ce of the heating demand on the size of the glazed south-facing window areas in\\ a Passive House with different glazing qualities (from [[examples:​residential_buildings:​single_-_family_houses:​central_europe:​The world'​s first Passive House, Darmstadt-Kranichstein,​ Germany#​Literature|[Feist 1993] ]]). It’s clear that\\ triple-pane low-e glazing is necessary for favourable energy balances in Central Europe (see\\ [[Planning:​thermal_protection:​windows:​Types of glazing and their specific values]]) (bottom curve). Dr. Ortmanns, ​with\\ VEGLA in Aachen at that time, helped us to obtain this glazing for the first buil-\\ ding project, the Passive House in Darmstadt-Kranichstein. Since then, this type\\ of glazing has become commonly available on the market:\\ see [[Planning:​thermal_protection:​windows:​Types of glazing and their specific values]].**//​|\\+|//**__Fig. 1 - Simulation results at the beginning:​__ here is a calculation of the dependen-\\ ce of the heating demand on the size of the glazed south-facing window areas in\\ a Passive House with different glazing qualities (from [[examples:​residential_buildings:​single_-_family_houses:​central_europe:​The world'​s first Passive House, Darmstadt-Kranichstein,​ Germany#​Literature|[Feist 1993] ]]). It’s clear that\\ triple-pane low-e glazing is necessary for favourable energy balances in Central ​\\ Europe (see [[Planning:​thermal_protection:​windows:​Types of glazing and their specific values]]) (bottom curve). Dr. Ortmanns,​\\ ​with VEGLA in Aachen at that time, helped us to obtain this glazing for the first buil-\\ ding project, the Passive House in Darmstadt-Kranichstein. Since then, this type\\ of glazing has become commonly available on the market:\\ see [[Planning:​thermal_protection:​windows:​Types of glazing and their specific values]].**//​|\\
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-**It was quickly realised that energy optimisation for buildings should not be limited solely to heating energy; in fact, all household energy consumption had to be minimised.** Otherwise it would be possible to reduce the heating energy requirement to "​zero"​ by using inefficient electrical devices, for example, which create high internal gains. How high the available internal heat gains really are, was disputed even back then – with the completed Passive House, carefully measured results finally became available, namely around 2 W/m² [[examples:​residential_buildings:​single_-_family_houses:​central_europe:​The world'​s first Passive House, Darmstadt-Kranichstein,​ Germany#​Literature|[AkkP 5] ]]. In spite of this, even after standardisation,​ calculations are still carried out using values that are far too optimistic (over 5 W/m²).\\+**It was quickly realised that energy optimisation for buildings should not be limited solely to heating energy; in fact, all household energy consumption had to be minimised.** Otherwise it would be possible to reduce the heating energy requirement to "​zero"​ by using inefficient electrical devices, for example, which create high internal gains. How high the available internal heat gains really are, was disputed even back then – with the completed Passive House, carefully measured results finally became available, namely around 2 W/m² [[examples:​residential_buildings:​single_-_family_houses:​central_europe:​The world'​s first Passive House, Darmstadt-Kranichstein,​ Germany#​Literature|[AkkP 5] ]]. In spite of this, even after standardisation,​ calculations are still carried out using values that are far too optimistic((This is one of the reasons of the often "​bemoaned"​ so called performance gap, which is in fact by no way a performance gap, but a difference which results from self-deception:​ For example by asuming unrealistic high internal heat gains.))  ​(over 5 W/m²).\\
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   * alternative architectural drafts were prepared,   * alternative architectural drafts were prepared,
   * the efficiency of ventilation heat recovery units was improved,   * the efficiency of ventilation heat recovery units was improved,
-  * ventilation ​regulations ​were developed based on air quality guidelines,+  * ventilation ​controls ​were developed based on air quality guidelines,
   * new specially insulated window frames and shutters were developed,   * new specially insulated window frames and shutters were developed,
-  * construction details for the connection of building components were designed,+  * low thermal bridge ​construction details for the connection of building components were designed,
   * solar heating technologies and a concept for heat recovery from waste water were developed.\\   * solar heating technologies and a concept for heat recovery from waste water were developed.\\
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   * and a subsoil heat exchanger for preheating the fresh air were used.   * and a subsoil heat exchanger for preheating the fresh air were used.
  
-The house has extremely good thermal insulation, which has functioned outstandingly since the house was occupied ​15 years ago.\\+The house has extremely good thermal insulation, which has functioned outstandingly since the house was occupied ​in October 1991.\\
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 [[examples:​residential_buildings:​single_-_family_houses:​central_europe:​The world'​s first Passive House, Darmstadt-Kranichstein,​ Germany#​Literature|[Feist 1997c] ]]. [[examples:​residential_buildings:​single_-_family_houses:​central_europe:​The world'​s first Passive House, Darmstadt-Kranichstein,​ Germany#​Literature|[Feist 1997c] ]].
  
-  * The hot water is heated using solar vacuum ​tube collectors (5.3 m² per household or 1.4 m² per person). +  * The hot water is heated using solar vacuum ​flat collectors (5.3 m² per household or 1.4 m² per person). 
-  * Natural gas is used for secondary heating. The flat-collector thermal system covers about 66% of the consumption in the Passive House in Darmstadt-Kranichstein.+  * Natural gas is used for secondary heating. The flat-collector thermal system covers about 66% of the dhw consumption in the Passive House in Darmstadt-Kranichstein.
   * Because the provision of domestic hot water represents the greatest energy requirement of this house, an efficient domestic hot water system is of great importance. The heat distribution and circulation pipes have therefore been placed inside the thermal envelope and are well insulated.\\   * Because the provision of domestic hot water represents the greatest energy requirement of this house, an efficient domestic hot water system is of great importance. The heat distribution and circulation pipes have therefore been placed inside the thermal envelope and are well insulated.\\
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 === Heat Recovery === === Heat Recovery ===
  
-A Passive House can only function with a **[[planning:​building_services:​ventilation:​basics:​types_of_ventilation|controlled ventilation system with highly-efficient heat recovery]]**,​ because the average annual ventilation heat losses are 35 kWh per square meter of floor space, this is more than twice the Passive House heating demand. This was already known due to the investigations during the preparatory research project.+A Passive House in the Central European Climate ​can only function with a **[[planning:​building_services:​ventilation:​basics:​types_of_ventilation|controlled ventilation system with highly-efficient heat recovery]]**,​ because the average annual ventilation heat losses are 35 kWh per square meter of floor space, this is more than twice the Passive House heating demand. This was already known due to the investigations during the preparatory research project.
  
 Thus in Kranichstein a balanced supply air and exhaust air ventilation system with a highly efficient counterflow air-to-air heat exchanger was used - but it had to be specially adapted for this purpose because at the time, the fans used had a very high electricity consumption. Thus in Kranichstein a balanced supply air and exhaust air ventilation system with a highly efficient counterflow air-to-air heat exchanger was used - but it had to be specially adapted for this purpose because at the time, the fans used had a very high electricity consumption.
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   * At the highest setting, between 160 and 185 m³/h are supplied.   * At the highest setting, between 160 and 185 m³/h are supplied.
  
-Exhaust ​air is drawn away from the humid rooms like the kitchen and bathrooms in corresponding quantities. Such high-efficiency ventilation systems had not been available before the Passive House; it was only in 1997 that development by the Research Group for Cost-efficient Passive Houses was so far advanced that several manufacturers started to produce serial units of this quality for the market. Today these units typically display the following characteristics:​ +Extract ​air is drawn away from the humid rooms like the kitchen and bathrooms in corresponding quantities. Such high-efficiency ventilation systems had not been available before the Passive House; it was only in 1997 that development by the Research Group for Cost-efficient Passive Houses was so far advanced that several manufacturers started to produce serial units of this quality for the market. Today these units typically display the following characteristics:​ 
-  * heat recovery efficiency of over 80%,+  * heat recovery efficiency of more than 80%,
   * electricity consumption of less than 0.4 Wh/m³ transferred air - see the certified units at [[http://​www.passiv.de]].   * electricity consumption of less than 0.4 Wh/m³ transferred air - see the certified units at [[http://​www.passiv.de]].
  
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 The Passive House in Kranichstein was finished in October 1991 and has been inhabited by four families since then. The interior finish materials were selected to create as little indoor air pollution as possible. The insulating materials are airtightly separated from the interior by continuous interior plaster or vapour retarders without any gaps – as appropriate from a building physics perspective. The good air quality was confirmed by a separate investigation within the context of a social science study, which objectified user acceptance [[examples:​residential_buildings:​single_-_family_houses:​central_europe:​The world'​s first Passive House, Darmstadt-Kranichstein,​ Germany#​Literature|[Rohrmann 1994] ]]. The Passive House in Kranichstein was finished in October 1991 and has been inhabited by four families since then. The interior finish materials were selected to create as little indoor air pollution as possible. The insulating materials are airtightly separated from the interior by continuous interior plaster or vapour retarders without any gaps – as appropriate from a building physics perspective. The good air quality was confirmed by a separate investigation within the context of a social science study, which objectified user acceptance [[examples:​residential_buildings:​single_-_family_houses:​central_europe:​The world'​s first Passive House, Darmstadt-Kranichstein,​ Germany#​Literature|[Rohrmann 1994] ]].
  
-Due to particularly well-insulating and airtight sliding shutters as temporary heat protection, it was even possible to operate one of the accommodation units as a "​zero-heating-energy house" without any heating in the years 1994 to 1996 [[examples:​residential_buildings:​single_-_family_houses:​central_europe:​The world'​s first Passive House, Darmstadt-Kranichstein,​ Germany#​Literature|[Feist 1995] ]].\\+Due to particularly well-insulating and airtight sliding shutters as temporary heat protection, it was even possible to operate one of the accommodation units as a "​zero-heating-energy house" without any heating in the years 1994 to 1996 [[examples:​residential_buildings:​single_-_family_houses:​central_europe:​The world'​s first Passive House, Darmstadt-Kranichstein,​ Germany#​Literature|[Feist 1995] ]].((These shutters, however, as moving mechanical elements, have not been working flawlessly and would have needed a constant expensive maintainance to keep them closing tightly. This was one of the reasons, why the Passive House Institute does not recommend to go a further stepp towards "zero heating energy buildings"​ as a generally used solution - but recommends the well-approved Passive House standard.)) ​\\
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 ===== Conclusion ===== ===== Conclusion =====
  
-It is pleasing that many architects, planners, product developers and property developers have applied the Passive House concept. If we can continue together to accelerate its implementation and apply our experiences for the refurbishment of existing buildings as well, then we will be able to master the task of climate protection and contribute to a fairer distribution of energy globally, as well as increase value creation in regions and thus create additional employment opportunities – and most importantly – enabling people to live a comfortable and worthwhile life in prosperity, today and in the future. Sustainable growth is possible with the Passive House - as Mark Zimmermann outlined in detail at the 9th Passive House Conference in 2005 in Ludwigshafen ([[examples:​residential_buildings:​single_-_family_houses:​central_europe:​The world'​s first Passive House, Darmstadt-Kranichstein,​ Germany#​Literature|[Zimmermann 2005] ]]).\\+It is pleasing that many architects, planners, product developers and property developers have applied the Passive House concept ​- it's made the path all around planet Earth, there are examples of Passive Houses on each continent (2015). If we can continue together to accelerate its implementation and apply our experiences for the refurbishment of existing buildings as well (what has been done using [[ Certification : EnerPHit|EnerPHit-standard]]), then we will be able to master the task of climate protection and contribute to a fairer distribution of energy globally, as well as increase value creation in regions and thus create additional employment opportunities – and most importantly – enabling people to live a comfortable and worthwhile life in prosperity, today and in the future. Sustainable growth is possible with the Passive House - as Mark Zimmermann outlined in detail at the 9th Passive House Conference in 2005 in Ludwigshafen ([[examples:​residential_buildings:​single_-_family_houses:​central_europe:​The world'​s first Passive House, Darmstadt-Kranichstein,​ Germany#​Literature|[Zimmermann 2005] ]]).\\
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 |{{ :​picopen:​balance_passive_house_kran_compared_to_calculation.png?​500 }}| |{{ :​picopen:​balance_passive_house_kran_compared_to_calculation.png?​500 }}|
 |//​**Comparison of measured energy consumption (left) with the energy balance\\ calculated by the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) for the Passive House\\ in Darmstadt-Kranichstein. For the PHPP, see: [[Planning:​calculating energy efficiency:​PHPP - the Passive House Planning Package|PHPP-Balances]].**//​|\\ |//​**Comparison of measured energy consumption (left) with the energy balance\\ calculated by the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) for the Passive House\\ in Darmstadt-Kranichstein. For the PHPP, see: [[Planning:​calculating energy efficiency:​PHPP - the Passive House Planning Package|PHPP-Balances]].**//​|\\
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-Scientists, architects, engineers and other contributors from various disciplines played a part in making the Passive House in Darmstadt-Kranichstein a success. The author would like to express thanks to all those involved. The preparation of the experimental construction was based on the results of many forerunner projects and on findings from building physics, building engineering and systematic computer-assisted systems analysis.\\+Scientists, architects, engineers and other contributors from various disciplines played a part in making the Passive House in Darmstadt-Kranichstein a success. The author would like to express thanks to all those involved. The preparation of the experimental construction was based on the results of many [[basics:​the_passive_house_-_historical_review|forerunner]] projects and on findings from building physics, building engineering and systematic computer-assisted systems analysis.\\
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